Archives Glossary

What is X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)

How does XRF work? X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) is an analytical technique that uses the interaction of X-rays with a material to determine its elemental composition. XRF is suitable for solids, liquids and powders, and in most circumstances is non-destructive. XRF spectroscopy…

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

In environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an indicative measure of the amount of oxygen that can be consumed by reactions in a measured solution. It is commonly expressed in mass of oxygen consumed over volume of solution…

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, also called biological oxygen demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e., demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time…

The Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the entire range and scope (spectrum) of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies. The electromagnetic spectrum extends from below the low frequencies used for modern radio communication to gamma radiation at…

Interferometry or Interferometers

Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.Interferometry is an important investigative technique in the fields of astronomy, fiber optics, engineering metrology, optical metrology,…

Fourier transform

The Fourier transform decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes. The Fourier…

Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter. It covers a range of techniques, mostly based on absorption spectroscopy. As with all spectroscopic techniques, it can be used to identify and study chemicals.…

NIR (near infrared spectroscopy)

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from about 700 nm to 2500 nm). Typical applications include medical and physiological diagnostics and research including blood sugar, pulse oximetry, functional neuroimaging, sports…

Ramanspectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy (/ˈrɑːmən/; named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system. Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry to provide a structural fingerprint by…

UV – VIS-spectrometry

Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent ranges. The absorption or reflectance in the visible range directly…